By definition, free and open source software (FOSS) is opposed to proprietary companies. But, as Jim Zemlin and Stephen J. Vaughan-Nichols have pointed out recently, the FOSS community does not regard all proprietary companies with equal disdain. Specifically, while fear and loathing of Microsoft often reaches towering, even paranoid heights, Apple is hardly ever condemned, and even seems to be regarded with approval by many members of the FOSS community. Yet, in some ways, Apple poses a greater proprietary threat than Microsoft.
To say the least, this state of affairs is odd. Although Microsoft is suspected of using FreeBSD code for its own proprietary purposes, we know that Apple's OS X operating system definitely has done so -- and the fact that the borrowing is legal in both cases shouldn't mitigate the violation of the community's ethos of sharing. Moreover, as John Sullivan, operations manager for the Free Software Foundation, points out, the cryptographically signed software installation on the iPhone is a form of digital rights management that prevents the modification or sharing of apps that are part of the basic definition of FOSS.
Yet, so far, the Free Software Foundation is ahead of the rest of the community in its attitudes toward Apple. Fashion, outdated thinking, the open source emphasis on quality, and an over-focus on Microsoft as the enemy all combine to make the FOSS community dangerously blind to how Apple operates.
The Allure of Fashion
From the earliest days of personal computing, Apple has always had fashion on its side. Where Microsoft caters to business, Apple courts the artistic and the trendy. Where Microsoft has solid business leaders, Apple has a guru and visionary. Where Windows runs mostly on utilitarian-looking hardware that wouldn't be out of place in Nineteen Eighty-Four (recent efforts from Hewlett-Packard and Dell being exceptions still rather than the rule), Apple hardware is a model of industrial design that rivals the Rolls Royce Silver Ghost or the Braun line of coffee makers.
Some of this reputation is deserved, and other parts of it are exaggerated or outdated, but Apple continues to play on it, as the Mac vs. PC ads show. How else could a company parlay a music player like the iPod or a mobile device like the iPhone that are functionally little different to anything else on the market into phenomena that people will line up overnight to get?
By contrast, Microsoft is the company that everybody loves to hate. These days, you don't even need to be a geek to express your hate. Tell an anti-Microsoft joke in the average business or college crowd, and you are guaranteed a laugh. Tell a joke against Apple, though, and surprised silence will struggle with strained smiles in your audience.
How true or how deserved Microsoft's or Apple's reputations are is irrelevant. Fashion isn't about truth; it's about perception. What matters is that bucking fashion is hard, especially when you are young, as much of the FOSS community tends to be. And, for all that techies like to think themselves above fashion, when it comes to hardware and software, many are as consumer-oriented as a teenager downloading the latest tune or buying the latest evening accessories. Given Apple's reputation, to criticize the company means labelling yourself as uncool -- and that's something that very few people at any age have the courage to do.
Old Perceptions Die Hard
Another reason that the FOSS community doesn't scrutinize Apple the way it needs to is that many of us are still operating on assumptions that no longer apply. Despite the dramatic reversal in Apple's fortunes in the last decades, many of us are still thinking about Apple as though we were still waiting for the millennium.
The same is true of perceptions of Microsoft, of course. But, in Microsoft's case, the failure to update perceptions matters less. While Microsoft is no longer denouncing FOSS as anti-American or communism, its basic wish to neutralize or assimilate the movement shows no more than token signs of changing. Only the tactics have changed, from denunciations to sponsoring and participation at FOSS conferences.
However, in the same period, Apple has been dramatically transformed. A decade ago, Apple seemed to be flagging, so it was easy to see it as FOSS's fellow underdog. Or, as one comment on Zemlin's blog suggested, the old adage seemed to apply: The enemy of our enemy is our friend. Even if you hoped to attract friends and family to free software, if they went to a Mac instead, you could at least console yourself that they had taken the positive step of being free of Windows.
Besides, since the introduction of OS X, you could always console yourself with the knowledge that Mac users were running a latter day Unix, just as you were.
Today, Apple is more widely available in the stores, and has become an accepted alternative to Windows. In some fields, such as music players, it is the market leader. Yet, while possibly less given to dirty tricks and fast practices than Microsoft, it has shown itself just as monopolistic and unfriendly to FOSS. The iTunes store, for example, has provisions for Windows machines, and none for GNU/Linux ones, while the App Store blocks centralized development in the name of security.
Yet, for the most part, the FOSS community's thinking has not kept up with Apple's changing fortunes. Too often, we still think of Apple as a Microsoft alternative when the reality is that its emphasis on interoperability makes Apple more of a Microsoft ally these days.