Now that everyone has had time to examine Windows 10, it seems like a good time to finally do a proper Windows vs. Linux showdown. After all, I waited until Windows caught up in turns of features and user interface. For the sake of common sense, I've decided to use Ubuntu as our default Linux release.
In this article, I'll hammer out the features for both platforms and compare them accordingly. Each platform has its strengths and weaknesses, and this article will help to shed some light on each of them.
The installation of the operating system
Both Windows 10 and Ubuntu Linux have straight forward OS installers. Simply follow the prompts as they're presented to you.
Installing Ubuntu: Ubuntu's installer generally points you to either installing their OS along side of an existing OS or installing over an existing Ubuntu install. The steps are simple if you already have another operating system installed. But if you're looking to install Ubuntu over an existing Ubuntu installation, keeping your docs, settings and pictures require you to take one of the following approaches.
Option one, use Ubuntu's backup tool before you install Ubuntu again. Option two, during the installation process, select "something else" to manually select which partitions are to be formatted. Obviously if Ubuntu is being installed on a new hard drive, this is a moot issue and a clean "Erase and install Ubuntu" option is perfectly acceptable. Personally, I always go with the "Something else" installation type. I prefer a dedicated home directory, which this option makes possible during partition setup.
One of the nice things about the Ubuntu installation is that you're asked if you'd like to Encrypt your installation. In addition, a Logical Volume Manager (LVM) option is also presented. This makes resizing partitions in the future much easier, thanks to snapshots.
Installing Windows 10: While technically possible to install Windows 10 and Ubuntu along side of one another, Windows' is famous for killing off GRUB, Ubuntu's boot manager in the process. Therefore the preferred method has always been to install Windows first, then to install Ubuntu there after. Long story short, Windows doesn't truly play nice with Ubuntu on the same machine by default. You'll have to take steps to protect your Ubuntu installation if you wish to use both operating systems.
During a Windows 10 installation, the installer does a nice job of recognizing that you might wish to save your docs, settings and pictures. Instead of expecting you to have created a dedicated home partition or using a backup utility ahead of time, Windows 10 provides an option to backup this information on the fly. While it's not a feature I personally would rely on, casual computer users will benefit from this feature.
Instead of a LVM feature, Windows 10 uses Storage Spaces for their server release. However, I'm not clear if this is the case for their typical desktop releases as they haven't released officially yet. Assuming this will be provided, it will offer a LVM-like experience for Windows 10 users.
What's interesting about Windows vs. Ubuntu, is that Windows (as of 8.1) provides encryption by default. Ubuntu, on the other hand, feels their users can best make this decision themselves. Will Windows 10 also have encryption turned on by default? My best guess is that it will in its final released version(s). And as most of us know, encryption is great until you're unable to recover lost files. With Windows we're asking Microsoft to hold onto our encryption keys where as with Ubuntu, it's left in our own capable hands.
Windows 10 wins with its ability to easily protect and restore user data during a clean installation. However I feel they lose credibility with their encryption due to Microsoft's involvement with various federal agencies.
Looking at the desktop
Ubuntu: After installing Ubuntu, you're presented with your desktop and the Unity launcher. On the left, is the Launcher itself and the Dash. At the top of the screen, you'll find your various indicators. When an icon on the Launcher is clicked, that application is immediately launched.
One thing that can take new Ubuntu users by surprise is how Unity lays things out with launched applications. Software appears as "launched" in the Launcher instead of appearing "minimized" at the bottom of the screen. Other new experiences for the non-Ubuntu user include using the Dash for locating applications, documents and other files. Perhaps the biggest shift for the newcomer would be the use of Lenses. Each lens offers different functionality. For example, a social lens would allow its users to parse content from connected social media sources.
Applications included with Ubuntu are carefully selected, like with any operating system. The idea is to make sure the end user has the basic applications needed to accomplish common tasks. These applications range from browsing the web to a completely free office suite. Additional applications can be found for Ubuntu through the Software Center, the Personal Package Archive (PPA) system and through other third party sources.
Windows 10: With Windows 10 installed, immediately you find that the release is struggling to let go of its Windows 8 roots. Whether or not this is a bad thing is entirely a personal perspective.
First thing you'll notice is how the Start menu is setup. At its core, I think it's an interesting idea. Blending Windows tiles with a traditional menu layout is definitely going to stir strong opinions. Also new is the push for Microsoft Office Online. The idea here is to bridge the gap between a localized Office experience and that of one that's web based. With regard to the full version of Office 2016, the cost for this suite remains a mystery.